Diabetes mellitus in two genetically distinct populations in Jordan. A Comparison between Arabs and Circassians/Chechens Living with Diabetes
Objectives: To compare clinical, anthropometric, and laboratory characteristics in diabetes type 2 patients of 2 genetically-distinct ethnicities living in Jordan, Arabs and Circassians/Chechens.
Methods: This cross sectional ethnic comparison study was conducted in King Abdullah University Hospital, Irbid and The National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Genetics, Amman, Jordan between June 2013 and February 2014. A sample of 347 (237 Arab and 110 Circassian/Chechen) people living with diabetes were included in the study. Data were collected through direct interviews with the participants. Clinical data were collected using a questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Laboratory data were extracted from the patients’ medical records.
Results: More Arabs with diabetes had hypertension as a comorbidity than Circassians/Chechens with diabetes. Arabs living with diabetes were generally more obese, whereas Circassians/Chechens living with diabetes had worse lipid control. Arabs with diabetes had higher means of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood sugar, and more Arabs with diabetes had unsatisfactory glycemic control (60.6%) than Circassians/Chechens with diabetes (38.2%) (HbA1c ≥7.0%). Most participants (88.8%) had at least one lipid abnormality (dyslipidemia).
Conclusion: Multiple discrepancies among the 2 ethnic diabetic populations were found. New diabetes management recommendations and policies should be used when treating people living with diabetes of those ethnicities, particularly in areas of glycemic control, lipid control, and obesity.
Saudi Med J 2017; Vol. 38 (2): 163-169
How to cite this article:
Al-Eitan LN, Nassar AM, Dajani RB, Almomani BA, Saadeh NA. Diabetes mellitus in two genetically distinct populations in Jordan. A Comparison between Arabs and Circassians/Chechens Living with Diabetes. Saudi Med J. 2017 Feb;38(2):163-169. doi: 10.15537/smj.2017.2.17910.
Zimmet P, Alberti KG, Shaw J. Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic. Nature 2001; 414: 782-787.
Engelgau MM, Geiss LS, Saaddine JB, Boyle JP, Benjamin SM, Gregg EW. The evolving diabetes burden in the United States. Ann Intern Med 2004; 140: 945-950.
King H, Aubert RH, Herman WH. Global burden of diabetes, 1995–2025: prevalence, numerical estimates, and projections. Diabetes Care 1998; 21: 1414-1431.
International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes atlas. 5th edition. 2012. [Accessed 2016 May 20]
Alhyas L, McKay A, Balasanthiran A, Majeed A. Prevalences of overweight, obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in the Gulf: systematic review. JRSM Short Rep 2011; 2: 55.
Ajlouni K, Khader YS, Batieha A, Ajlouni H, El-Khateeb M. An increase in prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Jordan over 10 years. J Diabetes Complications 2008; 22: 317-324.
Ajlouni K, Jaddou H, Batieha A. Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in Jordan: prevalence and associated risk factors. J Intern Med 1998; 244: 317-323.
Harris MI, Flegal KM, Cowie CC, Eberhardt MS, Goldstein DE, Little RR. Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in U.S. adults: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Diabetes Care 1998; 21: 518-524.
Barbujani G, Nasidze IS, Whitehead GN. Genetic diversity in the Caucasus. Hum Biol 1994; 66: 639-668.
Kailani W. Chechens in the Middle-East: between original and host cultures. Caspian Studies Program. 2002.
Dajani R, Khader YS, Fatahallah R, El-Khateeb M, Shiyab AH, Hakooz N. Diabetes mellitus in genetically isolated populations in Jordan: prevalence, awareness, glycemic control, and associated factors. J Diabetes Complications 2012; 26: 175-180.
Dajani R, Khader YS, Hakooz N, Fatahalla R, Quadan F. Metabolic syndrome between two ethnic minority groups (Circassians and Chechens) and the original inhabitants of Jordan. Endocrine 2013; 43: 112-119.
Shishani K, Dajani R, Khader Y. Hypertension risk assessment in the largest ethnic groups in Jordan. J Immigr Minor Health 2013; 15: 43-48.
Tayyem RF, Dajani R, Khader YS, Abu-Mweis SS, Fatahallah R, Bawadi HA. Nutrient intake and lifestyle factors by diabetes status of Circassians and Chechans in Jordan. Ethn Dis 2014; 24: 200-206.
Satman I, Yilmaz T, Sengül A, Salman S, Salman F, Uygur S. Population-based study of diabetes and risk characteristics in Turkey. Diabetes Care 2002; 25: 1551-1556.
Baskar V, Kamalakannan D, Holland MR, Singh BM. The prevalence of hypertension and utilization of antihypertensive therapy in a district diabetes population. Diabetes Care 2002; 25: 2107-2108.
Meyer KA, Kushi LH, Jacobs DR Jr, Folsom AR. Dietary fat and incidence of type 2 diabetes in older Iowa women. Diabetes Care 2001; 24: 1528-1535.
Li G, Zhang P, Wang J, Gregg EW, Yang W, Gong Q, et al. The long-term effect of lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes in the China Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study: a 20-year follow-up study. Lancet 2008; 371: 1783-1789.
Chan JM, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Obesity, fat distribution, and weight gain as risk factors for clinical diabetes in men. Diabetes Care 1994; 17: 961-969.
Colditz GA, Willett WC, Rotnitzky A, Manson JE. Weight gain as a risk factor for clinical diabetes in women. Ann Intern Med 1995; 122: 481-486.
Zhu S, Wang Z, Heshka S, Heo M, Faith MS, Heymsfield SB. Waist circumference and obesity-associated risk factors among whites in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: clinical action threshold. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76: 743-749.
Khader YS, Batieha A, Jaddou H, Batieha Z, El-Khateeb M, Ajlouni K. Anthropometric cutoff values for detecting metabolic abnormalities in Jordanian adults. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2010; 3: 395-402.
Peeters A, Barendregt JJ, Willekens F, Mackenbach JP, Al Mamun A, Bonneux L, et al. Obesity in adulthood and its consequences for life expectancy: a life-table analysis. Anna Internl Med 2003; 138: 24-32.
Herman WH, Ali MA, Aubert RE, Engelgau MM, Kenny SJ, Gunter E, et al. Diabetes mellitus in Egypt: risk factors and prevalence. Diabet Med 1995; 12: 1126-1131.
Ajlouni K, Jaddou H, Batieha A. Obesity in Jordan. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998; 22: 624-628.
Adham M, Froelicher ES, Batieha A, Ajlouni K. Glycaemic control and its associated factors in type 2 diabetic patients in Amman, Jordan. East Mediterr Health J 2010; 16: 732-739.
Haffner SM. Diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 1999; 83: 17-21.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Saudi Medical Journal is copyright under the Berne Convention and the International Copyright Convention. Saudi Medical Journal is an Open Access journal and articles published are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (CC BY-NC). Readers may copy, distribute, and display the work for non-commercial purposes with the proper citation of the original work. Electronic ISSN 1658-3175. Print ISSN 0379-5284.